Hmong Writing Examples

The writing examples and level descriptions found on these pages can help individuals understand what kind of language might be expected at each proficiency level. These examples were produced by real language learners and may contain errors. Remember, this is a language proficiency assessment and errors are part of creating language.

Additional resources can be found in the Power-Up Guide and on our Video Tutorials page.

Tips to better prepare for the writing portion of the assessment:

  • Be a ‘show-off’ – this is the time to show what you can do!
  • Be organized in your writing.
  • Challenge yourself to go above and beyond what you normally write.
  • Be creative and don’t stress out over possible errors. Perfection is not the goal!

Simply do your best and enjoy creating and communicating in the language that you are learning.

Good Luck!

LevelDescription of LevelExample
Level 1
Novice-Low
At this level, I am able to create individual words that have no extended meaning. I can share some simple vocabulary, which deals with the prompt/task/situation, but I tend to struggle to connect those words to create meaning
    No example for this level.
    Level 2
    Novice-Mid
    At this level, I am beginning to develop the ability to create meaning by grammatically connecting words. Specifically, I can connect some basic subjects and verbs or verbs and objects, but I may be inconsistent at doing this. I am often limited in my vocabulary to Novice level topics that I experience in my every-day life or that I have recently learned.
      No example for this level.
      Level 3
      Novice-High
      At this level, I can create simple sentences with very basic grammatical control and accuracy. There are often errors in my responses, while at the same time I might have good control with some very simple structures and functions of the language that I have just learned or studied. At the Novice levels, errors are expected as I try to create simple sentences. Generally, the sentences that I am able to create are very basic and simple with few, if any, added details.
        No example for this level.
        Level 4
        Intermediate-Low
        At this level, I can create simple sentences with some added detail; such sentences help create VARIETY. At the Intermediate Low level, simple sentences are enhanced by use of prepositional phrases, helping verb usage, as well as some adverbs and a variety of adjectives. I generally create independent sentences (ideas) that can be moved around without affecting the overall meaning of the response. There are still a number of errors in my response, but I have fairly good control of more basic sentences. I am feeling more confident in using different structures and expanding vocabulary and taking more risks with my responses.
          Cov me nyuam yaus ua saib TV thiab ua si nrog video games ntau ntau muaj teem meem nrog lawv lub qhov muag. Yog tias me nyuam yaus saib TV thiab ua si nrog video games ntau ntau ces nws yuas tsis muaj sib hawm ua lwm yam hau lwm haus tsev los yog kawm ntawv. Ua si video games thiab saib TV zoo thaum tsi muaj dab tsi ua lawm xwb.
          Level 5
          Intermediate-Mid
          At this level, I can now create enough language to show groupings of ideas. My thoughts are loosely connected and cannot be moved around without affecting meaning. I can also create a few sentences with complexity and am able to use some transition words. I am also able to use more than just simple present tense, but often make mistakes when I try to use other tenses. My vocabulary use is expanding and I am able to use more than the usual, high frequency or most common vocabulary. I feel that I am able to create new language on my own and communicate my everyday needs without too much difficulty.
            Ntawm kev saib TV thiab kev ua si cov video game ntau dhau lawm yuav tsis zoo rau me nyuam vim hais tias yuav tsis zoo rau me nyuam lub qhov muag. Yam zoo los ntawm saib TV ces yog lawv yuav kawm tau saib ntawv thiab hais lus Ankis. Yog tias me nyuam yaus saib TV thiab ua si nrog video games ntau ntau ces nws yuas tsis muaj sib hawm ua lwm yam hau lwm haus tsev los yog kawm ntawv. Ua si video games thiab saib TV zoo thaum tsi muaj dab tsi ua xwb.
            Level 6
            Intermediate-High
            At this level, I have good control of the language and feel quite confident about an increasing range of topics. There are still some occasional errors in my language production, but that does not hinder my ability to communicate what I need to share. I can use circumlocution to explain or describe things for which I do not know specific vocabulary or structures. I can understand and use different time frames and am just beginning to develop the ability to switch most time frames with accuracy. I can use transition words and concepts with some ease. My language has a more natural flow, but I still may have some unnatural pauses or hesitations.
              Kuv tau pom haiv thias kev saib TV thiab kev ua si cov video game yeej muaj ntau qhov zoo thiab qhov phem. Qhov ua kuv tau pom ua yog yam zoo mam, kuv pom tau haiv thias TV qhia tau peb cov me nyuam yaus txog kev kaws haiv lus. Thaum peb cia peb cov me nyuam saib TV txog txoj kev kaws lus mam lawv yeej kaws tau lus Ankis thiab lus Hmoob yooj yim. Kev cov video game los nws yeej pab tau peb cov me nyuam yaus nyeem ntawv thiab. Yog haiv thias lawv nyeem tsis tau ntawv ces lawv yeej ua si tsis tau nrog cov video game li. Kev saib TV thiab ua si video games tsis zoo vim nws ua tau rau peb cov me nyuam dhiv muag. Thaum peb cov me nyuam saib TV tag li xwb nws tsis zoo rau lawv cov qhov muag.
              Level 7
              Advanced-Low
              At this level my response contains a number of complexities with higher degree of accuracy. Such language allows me to address each aspect of the prompt more completely and with more depth of meaning. I am able to use Advanced vocabulary or Advanced terms, conjugations etc. with confidence. I feel that I can create natural flow using as much detail and descriptive language as possible to create a clear picture. Errors with more complex structures may still occur. My ability to switch time frames begins to increase in accuracy.
                Muaj coob coob tug me nyuam ua yeeg xav saib TV thiab ua si cov video game. Qhov zoo los yeej muaj thiab qhov phem los muaj. Ib qhov zoo ntawm saib TV yog cov me nyuam yuas kawm ntau ntau yag. Yog lawv saib local news, lawv thaij paub cov lawv zaj zov thiab cov xov xwm tam si no. Ntxiv mus, saib TV yog pab lawv kawm lus Anskiv thiab lus Hmoob. Ib qhov zoo ntawm me nyuam yuas ua si video game yog nws qhia tug me nyuam koj muaj tswv yim. Vim lis tawd, lawv tuaj yeem ua tshua yam tau. Kev tsis zoo ntawm saib TV thiab ua si cov video game yog nws yuag ua rau lawv tub nkeej vim tais lawv xav txoj ua si video game thiab saib TV xwb. Lawv txoj kev kawv ntawv yuav poob deb heev yog niam thiab txiv yuav haib tsis tau. Tab si, yog niam txiv tuaj yeem xyuas tau lawv cov me nyuam, cov khoom plig yog zoo dua qhov phem.
                Level 8
                Advanced-Mid
                At this level my response demonstrates my ease with the language. I am able to create a response which not only addresses each aspect of the prompt, but delves into each point with clarity and concise language. I am able to incorporate a number of more complex structures as well as Advanced vocabulary and Advanced phrases with a higher degree of accuracy throughout the majority of the response. The language I create has a natural flow due to the way I incorporate a variety of patterns and complexities into my response. My response shows my ability to create language that has sophistication of language skills and syntactical density. My ability to switch time frames accurately is evident, if called for in the prompt.
                  Thaum peb xav txog cov kev me nyuam yuas saib TV thiab ua si video games, muaj ntau yag qhov zoo thiab ntau yag qhov phem. Cia peb pib nrog cov zoo. Ib qhov zoo ntawm saib TV thiab ua si video games yog cov me nyuam kawm ntau ntau yag. Yog lawv saib local news, lawv thaij paub cov lawv zaj zov thiab cov xov xwm tam si no. Yog lawv ua si cov video games pab lawv, lawv mam muaj tswv yim ntau. Ib qhov tsis zoo yog coob kws kho mob ntseeg tias kev saib TV ntau dhau thiab ua si video games ua me nyuam tsis pom kev zoo. Ntxis mus, yog me nyuam saib TV thiab ua si video games xwm ces lawv kev kawm ntawv yog poob. Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws, kev saib TV ntau thiab kev ua si ua rau cov menyuam lub cev tsis zoo. Kev tsis muaj lub cev ua haujlwm tau ua rau yam kabmob ntshav qab zib 2 ntawm cov menyuam yaus. Tab si, yog niam txiv yeem xyuas tau lawv cov me nyuam, cov khoom plig yog zoo dua cov tsis zoo.

                  Updated April 2022

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